The Structure Of Industry In The System Of The Modern World Economy

Industry is the main actor in material production, all enterprises engaged in the extraction of minerals, the production and processing of materials and energy, and the production of machinery. Industries are divided into different groups according to their characteristics. Some groups are based on the purpose of the product, the way raw materials are used, and the production technology. The important industries in this classification are the extractive and manufacturing industries. Industries also differ in many ways: Heavy Industry. This includes mining, parts of the engineering industry, and the chemical industry, as well as energy, metallurgy, and building materials. Light Industry. Includes all types of light industry and the food industry. Each sector or industry is characterized by different levels of capital intensity, labor intensity, material intensity, energy intensity, water intensity, and science intensity. They can be quite different in different industries, even in the same industry. In the case of the chemical industry, the most material-intensive activities include the extraction of chemical raw materials, the production of mineral fertilizers, and the manufacture of various acids and alkalis. Conversely, the non-material-intensive are represented by the manufacture of perfumes and cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, photochemical industry, and reagents. The Role of Industry in History With the development of capitalist societies, the role of industry constantly increased, especially during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th centuries. This was the most active and developed period for mining, when new factories and plants were built, production capacity increased rapidly, energy consumption of all kinds grew to unprecedented levels, and environmental problems matured as a result. The Industrial Revolution was marked by the invention of the steam engine, the mass production of textiles, the construction of railroads, and the invention of the telegraph. The rapid growth of industry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries gave industry an important place among the various branches of material production in terms of the value of its products. In 1950, industry exceeded agriculture in value by a factor of two, and by the end of the century by a factor of seven to eight. It is noteworthy that agriculture has remained a major industry only in those countries that did not undergo the process of industrialization. In developed countries, agriculture and extractive industries remained the dominant industries until the industrial revolution. This happened in almost all developed countries before the beginning of the 20th century. In the early 21st century, the largest share of industry, at 50-60% of GDP, is typical of developing countries with globally important mineral resources. It is on the basis of these resources that these countries have developed export-oriented extractive industries. This is also true for some countries whose economies are in transition. The share of industry in the economy has gradually decreased, driven by the search for alternative energy sources, intensified production, reduced energy intensity, and most importantly, the active development of the service sector. The share of industry decreased to 20-40%. This trend has been characteristic of the early 21st century. The share of industry in the GDP of developed countries has decreased from 23% in 2000 to 15-20% in 2020. According to U.S. CIA data, in 2009, industry accounted for 30.6% of the world economy, services 63.4%, and agriculture only 6%. Extractive Industries and the Division of Labor The mining industry includes industries based on processes that extract raw materials and fuels from the earth’s interior, forests, and bodies of water. The mining industry includes the following Obtaining electricity. All sectors involved in the mining industry. Lumber and forestry. Hunting, fishing, and marine harvesting. In many cases, logging and forestry are considered together with woodworking, while the forestry and woodworking industries are separated. The main companies in the mining industry in the power industry are power plants, in mining – quarries, mines, cuttings, shafts, mines, in logging – timber companies, in hunting and fishing trade – farms, artels, etc. Industry is the most material-intensive sector of world industry, producing tens of billions of tons of various minerals, large quantities of ferrous and nonferrous ores, and building materials annually. It is worth noting, however, that the amount of minerals mined at the beginning of the 21st century has doubled since 1970. At the same time Nelson, the cost of extractive industry products is only 10% of the world industry, since the prices of mined raw materials are in most cases quite low. Quarrying and mining account for at least 1% of total world production. Consumption of minerals is concentrated in only a few regions of the world. Countries such as the United States, Canada, the European Union, Japan, and Australia, where at least 15% of the total population of the planet lives, consume most of the metals produced in the world. Aluminum 61%, lead 60%, copper 59%, and iron 49% of the world’s population. Per capita consumption is also concentrated among residents of developed countries, with 22 kg of aluminum per capita per year in the United States, 2 kg in India, and 0.7 kg in Africa. As part of the extractive industry, about 75% of total production falls under mining. This industry is characterized by a high degree of capital and energy intensity. Its share is 1/5 of the total fixed assets produced, or about the same as mechanical engineering, and twice the share of the chemical and petrochemical industry. About 7-10% of the world’s oil, gas, and coal production and electricity production is required annually for the mining and enrichment of minerals. Because of this situation, the mining industry has a negative impact on the ecological situation of the environment: at the beginning of the 21st century, more than 900 million tons of metals were mined worldwide, leaving 6 billion tons of waste rock in its wake. It is important to understand that as the percentage of metals in ore decreases, the amount of waste is constantly increasing. For every one gold ring, there are three tons of waste. A Nelson qualitative improvement in the situation in the mining industry is the production of metals from secondary raw materials, since they have a lower energy intensity than from mines. On the other hand, however, it is also true that for some metals, the degree of processing is not only not increasing, but is declining rapidly. Manufacturing: Manufacturing includes industries engaged in the processing of raw materials. Manufacturing is a branch, which varies according to the raw materials and their industrial origin. There are also industries that process agricultural raw materials. Copper from secondary processing accounted for 13% of world production at the beginning of the 21st century and already 20% in 1980. Zinc is produced from recycled raw materials for 4% of the world’s production. Depending on the use of the product, the manufacturing industry can be divided into the following sectors Engineering Chemical industry Light industry Agro-industrial complex.

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